What is Autogas? Autogas Conversion - Auto LPG Fuel vs Petrol (Gasoline)
LPG is a fuel gas. Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas – LPG - also identified as propane or butane, are flammable hydrocarbon gas mixtures used as fuel in vehicles, as Autogas, and as home heating and cooking fuel.
Auto LPG, commonly called Autogas, refers to liquefied petroleum gas – LPG – as used for fuel in internal combustion engines for both cars and stationary generators and other static applications. It is a blend of propane and butane.
The fuel type auto LPG used in LPG powered cars is quite often called “Autogas”. The fuel type LPG is an alternative to petrol (gasoline) and diesel fuel in cars that have had an autogas conversion. There are fuel types of LPG withing autogas, including propane, butane and a propane-butane mix.
In auto LPG vs petrol cars, the auto LPG fuel type offers the advantages of autogas conversion in fuel economy and maintenance costs, as well as reduced emissions.
In simple terms, LPG conversion is the addition of a second fuel system including an LPG tank, intake manifold modifications, a new ECU and various fittings. These additions enable the LPG conversion to run on both fuels.
Auto LPG Fuel: What is Autogas? What is the Difference between Autogas and LPG
There is no difference between Autogas and LPG except the possible inclusion of butane along with the propane. LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas – is a flammable hydrocarbon gaseous fuel including propane, butane and mixtures of these gases also known as Autogas or auto LPG.
Autogas (auto LPG), liquefied through pressurisation, is a fuel that comes from natural gas processing and oil refining and is also referred to as natural gas liquids – NGL.
The fuel type auto LPG (Autogas) is used as fuel for vehicles.
In different countries, what is supplied can be propane, butane or propane-butane blends.
Autogas is the usual name for LPG – Liquefied Natural Gas – when it is utilised as fuel for LPG cars and vehicles with internal combustion engines, in addition to generators and other fixed applications. Autogas is a mix of propane and butane.
LPG Vehicles - What is an LPG car? Autogas Conversion
LPG vehicles or LPG cars are vehicles fuelled by auto LPG autogas. An LPG vehicle (LPG car) can be an OEM single fuel LPG vehicles or dual fuel LPG conversion that runs on either LPG autogas or petrol.
An LPG car runs on auto LPG Autogas fuel, with 25 million worldwide.
There are four types of autogas conversion systems:
1. Converter-and-mixer systems
2. Vapour phase injection (VPI)
3. Liquid phase injection (LPI)
4. Liquid phase direct injection (LPDI)
Difference Between Fuel Type LPG-Autogas vs Petrol (Gasoline)
Regarding cost, the fuel type LPG is about half the price vs petrol cars but you will use about 20% more auto LPG than petrol. The cost saving is more pronounced if you compare against similar octane petrol.
Comparing fuel type LPG vs petrol (gas or gasoline), auto LPG is a liquefied gas whilst petrol is a liquid at normal atmospheric pressure. The fuel type LPG cost less than petrol and generally has a higher octane rating, at over 100 octane.
The result is that you still save about 40% on your fuel costs especially when comparing to high octane petrol.
This savings will more than cover the cost of the LPG conversion, if you are a driver that racks up a high kilometre count.
LPG vs Gas
LPG fuel consumption costs shows that LPG vs gas was 12.3L/100km LPG mileage vs gas (petrol) mileage of 9.9L/100km. The LPG fuel consumption puzzle is solved by the fact that LPG is approximately 50% less expensive than gas, more than offsetting the mileage.
What is the Difference Between Autogas and LPG - Fuel Type LPG
The fuel type LPG difference between autogas and LPG, if any, lies in the composition of the autogas. Auto LPG in Australia is 100% propane. Autogas may also be 100% propane or it can be a propane:butane mix. The possible butane content is the only fuel type LPG difference between autogas and LPG.
What are the Pros and Cons of Buying an LPG Powered Car?
• Autogas fuel cars have lower running costs.
• Autogas fuel is less expensive than petrol or diesel.
• Engine oil and spark plugs need changing less often with LPG, so service costs are reduced.
• Environmental benefits include reduced particulate, CO2 and NOx emissions,
• Auto LPG fuel octane ratings over 100 allows for higher compression ratios, which can increase power output.
• The biggest negative is the extra cost involved in buying an LPG car or converting a car to LPG fuel. However, the cost is typically recovered quickly through the realised savings.
• In some countries it may be a bit more difficult to find an LPG service station but, in most countries, they are becoming more numerous every year.
Types of Auto LPG Conversion Systems
• Converter-and-mixer systems are the oldest style, dating back decades and still widely used.
The LPG liquid fuel is converted into vapour and then mixed with air before going into the intake manifold.
• Vapour phase injection (VPI) systems use a converter-and-mixer system, but the gas exits the converter under pressure and is injected into the intake manifold.
Electrically controlled injectors improve the metering of fuel to the engine, fuel economy and power, as well as reducing emissions.
This has been the most popular type system in recent years.
• Liquid phase injection (LPI) systems inject liquid directly into the intake manifold, where it vaporises, not using a converter.
The fuel vaporising in the intake manifold cools and increases the density of the intake air, substantially increases power output, improves fuel economy and has lower emission, when compared to VPI systems.
• Liquid phase direct injection (LPDI) are the most advanced systems, injecting liquid LPG directly into the combustion chamber.
The LPG fuel instantly vaporises, cooling the combustion chamber fuel-air mixture during the compression stroke, with further performance and emission improvements.
Types of Auto LPG Vehicles Using Autogas Fuel
Autogas fuel is primarily use in cars and light commercial vehicles. Autogas has been very popular with SUV and utility vehicles owners.
Fleets, and taxis in particular, were early adopters and big users.
Generally, there are less in the way of heavy duty vehicles converted but there has been significant use of Autogas in the US school bus sector.
Most Autogas vehicles are after-market conversions, usually converted shortly after the original vehicle purchase.
Some OEM vehicle manufacturers are now producing and marketing dedicated Autogas vehicles with conventionally placed fuel tanks.
Auto LPG Hybrid Tri-Fuel
Take the best automotive technology – hybrid drive – and marry it with the cleanest and most economical commercial fuel – Auto LPG – and the result is nothing short of amazing.
The Toyota Camry Hybrid, with its petrol-electric hybrid drive, is already one of the most economical cars on the market.
Add a state-of-the-art LPG liquid injection system to the Camry Hybrid and you have an ultra-efficient tri-fuel vehicle that is truly revolutionary.
Hybrid LPG is the new benchmark in fuel economy and hybrid LPG conversions are available now.
Auto LPG Fuel Octane Rating
The fuel type LPG Octane rating is over 100. This auto LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Octane rating allows for higher compression ratios, which can increase power output.
The Auto LPG octane rating exceeds all production vehicle Octane requirements, which typically peak out at an Octane rating of 98.
Environmental Benefits of Auto LPG Fuel
The creation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is appreciably less with an Auto LPG vs petrol car.
Diesel CO2 emissions are 29.2% higher than LPG fuel whilst petrol is 26.8% higher than LPG.
CO2 is the primary greenhouse gas causing long term climate change.
When examined from a “Well to Wheel” perspective, the CO2 benefit is even greater.
This includes emissions associated with the processing and transportation, as well as use.
Auto LPG vs petrol cars also produce 95% less ozone and smog causing NOx than diesel engines.
The dirty black smoke that we see coming from diesel vehicles is fine particulate matter.
These fine particles may be deeply inhaled into the lung and carry with them a collection of attached hazardous compounds.
Experts at the World Health Organisation (WHO) say diesel engine exhaust fumes are carcinogenic.
One of the key environmental advantages of LPG vs petrol and diesel cars is the near-absence of particulate matter (PM) emissions.
Popularity of Auto LPG Fuel Worldwide
After ethanol, the fuel type LPG (Autogas) is now the highest volume alternative automotive fuel in use worldwide.
Global Autogas consumption rose 24% between 2009 and 2014, reaching over 26 million tonnes.
There are now more than 25 million Autogas vehicles in use globally and almost 73,000 refuelling stations.
Government Auto LPG Fuel Incentives
Governments in many countries actively encourage the use of auto LPG fuel, for environmental reasons.
Government financial incentives, aimed at subsidising the conversion cost of the vehicle, are very effective in promoting Autogas use.
Autogas surpasses gasoline and diesel in the majority of studies, conducted around the world, comparing environmental performance.
Autogas emissions are especially low with respect to noxious pollutants.
This has become critically important in places like London and South East Asia.
For example, government environmental restrictions on the use of diesel vehicles have helped drive the success of Autogas in Korea and Japan.
Security of Supply
If all oil and refinery imports were stopped, for reasons of war, natural disaster or other unforeseen circumstances, Australia would grind to halt within a matter of weeks.
Unlike petrol and diesel, for which we are reliant on these imports, Australia is self-sufficient in and a net exporter of LPG.
So, while other vehicles would become unusable if imports were cut off, Australia’s LPG fuel fleet would still be on the move.
Auto LPG Fuel is Easily Available
Autogas stations are easy to find. There are over 3,000 Autogas fuel outlets in Australia.
In fact, we have one of the most extensive autogas distribution networks in the world.
Auto LPG Fuel Cars are Safe
In many ways, auto LPG fuelled cars are safer than their petrol counterparts. LPG fuel tanks are typically made from welded heavy gauge steel, in contrast to modern petrol tanks that are plastic.
They are much more puncture resistant and will survive much greater impacts than a typical petrol or diesel tank.
Autogas fuel tanks are designed with an Automatic Fill Limiter (AFL) to prevent overfilling so the release of excess fuel during the refuelling process is virtually eliminated.
On the other hand, most of us have experienced petrol spills, which will puddle under your car, whilst any fugitive LPG just dissipates into the air.
Sealed passenger compartment ensure that no LPG enters the passenger compartment of the vehicle.
Autogas fuel tanks are designed to withstand even the most extreme conditions, with 20% unused volume to allow for any expansion of the LPG in hot conditions.
There are electronically controlled shut-off valves which stops the flow of gas to the engine if the engine stops for any reason or in the event of an emergency.
Auto LPG fuel is also less likely to catch fire than petrol as petrol (gasoline) ignites at temperatures as low as 246°C while LPG (propane) ignites at 470°C.
Australian auto LPG safety standards have been refined over many years. LPG fuel systems for vehicle engines are covered under Australian Standard AS1425.
The Standard specifies the requirements for the design and construction of component parts and for their installation in vehicles, as well as for tests, commissioning, and periodic inspection.
This Standard defines the minimum requirements of acceptability.
The specifications and requirements of AS1425 are some of the most stringent in the world.
Trained & Authorised Technicians and Certification
The mechanics that work on LPG vehicles are required to have more training than an ordinary car mechanic.
Specific schooling and knowledge, relating to Autogas systems, is a requirement.
All conversions also require certification.
On completion of an aftermarket installation, the installer will supply a certificate of compliance with AS1425.
Comments, questions or feedback?
The information in this article is derived from various sources and is believed to be correct at the time of publication. However, the information may not be error free and may not be applicable in all circumstances.