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Hot Water Mixing Valve - Hot Water Tempering Valve Adjustment - Hot Water System Installation Regulations - Tempering Valve Regulations

A hot water tempering valve is a temperature activated 3-way mixing valve used to temper a hot water supply by mixing in cold water with the hot water, delivering reduced temperature water, decreased scalding risk and improved safety.

A tempering valve is an adjustable 2-inlet mixing valve which is temperature activated and used to moderate a hot water flow by mixing the hot water with cold water to achieve ≅50°C (122°F). This reduced temperature water is then delivered to the taps and shower heads around your home. The temperature delivered is set by local building codes.

A hot water mixing valve or tempering valve keeps the tank hot enough to stop bacterial growth (>60°C) and provides a lower hot water tap temperature (≅50°C) to help reduce the risk of accidental scalding.

The hot water system installation regulations include tempering valve regulations that now require hot water tempering valves, to protect against scalding. Your plumber will make a hot water tempering valve adjustment to make sure your tap temperature does not exceed 50°C.

A hot water mixing valve or hot water tempering valve is a safety device that mixes cold water with the hot water, to help prevent scalding. Hot water tempering valve adjustment is done to comply with tempering valve regulations.

Hot water tempering valve regulations require reducing the heat of the hot water to a maximum tap temperature (usually 50°C) for improved safety.

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Uses of LPG - Propane Uses: What is LPG Used For? Uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

What is LPG used for?  LPG applications - cooking

LPG - liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas – (LP gas), the constituents of which are propane and butane, are flammable hydrocarbon fuel gases used for heating, cooking, hot water and vehicular fuel.

LPG is a fuel gas. Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas – LPG - also identified as propane or butane, are flammable hydrocarbon gas mixtures used as fuel in vehicles, as Autogas, and as home heating and cooking fuel.

Autogas is the term used for LPG used as vehicular fuel. Autogas demand is growing because it is cheaper than both gasoline and diesel whilst it also has less CO2 and particulate emissions. However, over 85% of LPG consumed is for home heating, cooking and hot water applications.

LPG is a versatile fuel and used around the world as an alternate fuel for various LPG applications including residential, commercial, industrial, agriculture and autogas. In areas lacking natural gas, LPG is the best alternate fuel. Heating, cooking, hot water and drying are common LPG applications.

LPG-propane uses include residential cooking, heating, hot water and vehicle fuel. Propane-LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) uses for commercial purposes include LPG applications like petrochemical feedstock. aerosol propellant, air conditioning refrigerant and as fuel for power generators.

LPG (petroleum gas) is used for hundreds, if not thousands, of LPG applications in addition to as a residential fuel gas, including being employed in many commercial and agricultural heat applications.

LPG is a gaseous flammable hydrocarbon fuel and is also referred to as natural gas liquids – NGL.

And there are many more ways to use LPG…

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Gas Regulator: LPG Gas Regulator, Regulator Gas Pressure, Gas Bottle Regulator & Gas Bottle Fittings

The primary function of an LPG gas regulator is to reduce the temperature dependent LPG gas bottle pressure from 400-1200kPa down to the required 2.75kPa operating pressure for the gas appliances. Gas bottle pressure varies with temperature but the LPG gas regulator must be able to consistently maintain 2.75kPa.

Gas regulator types include an LPG gas regulator, acetylene gas bottle regulator, oxygen gas bottle regulator plus all of the gas bottle fittings, gas bayonet fitting, pol gas fitting and gas regulator fittings that are the gas fitting supplies for welding or an LPG gas installation.

A gas regulator reduces the high pressure from the gas bottle to a consistent regulator gas pressure, as required by the application. Gas regulators are used for all compressed gases and gases liquefied under pressure, like LPG gas regulators for LPG bottles.

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Liquefied Petroleum Gas: LPG - What is LPG?

LPG - liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas – (LP gas), the constituents of which are propane and butane, are flammable hydrocarbon fuel gases used for LPG heating, cooking and vehicles.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas is typically referred to by its acronym – LPG. LPG is mixture of flammable hydrocarbon gases that include propane, butane, isobutane and mixtures of the three LPG gases. LPG is commonly used for home heating gases, cooking, hot water, and autogas – fuel for LPG cars and vehicles.

LPG gas comes from oil and gas wells, as it is a fossil fuel. LPG gas manufacturing process includes natural gas processing and the crude oil refinery process.

LPG, liquefied through pressurisation, comes from natural gas processing and oil refining.

In different countries, the LPG heating fuel gases supplied can be propane, butane or propane-butane blends. 

In Australia, LPG is just propane.  To explain LPG, Propane is LPG but not all LPG is propane.

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LPG Properties & LPG Composition -  What Are the Properties of LPG

Water boils at 100°C or 212°F, becoming a gas (steam). In contrast, LPG (propane) boils at -42°C or -44°F, becoming gas vapour. LPG stays liquid because it is under pressure in a gas cylinder. Liquid density is about half that of water.

In its natural state, LPG is a colourless and odourless gas. Odourant is added for safety.

LPG Composition - Components of LPG

LPG composition includes propane, butane & isobutane.

LPG composition is primarily propane, butane, isobutane, butylenes, propylene and mixtures of these gases, which are the components of LPG and all with different LPG properties. LPG is composed of liquid or gas (vapour), depending on pressure and LPG gas temperature.

The domestic LPG composition and the commercial LPG composition are typically the same propane, butane or a mixture of the two gases.

LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas – is produced during natural gas processing and petroleum refining.

Natural Gas Liquids – NGL – have the same LPG composition and gas temperatures plus a few more gases not normally included in LPG.

The full NGL list of components of LPG includes ethane, ethene, butylenes, propylene, propene, isobutene, butadiene, pentane, pentene and pentanes plus, as well as propane, butane and isobutane.

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LPG - Propane Heater Carbon Monoxide? Natural Gas Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?

Properly functioning propane heater should have optimal combustion during operation, presenting no danger of carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning has adverse health effects and can be fatal.

Properly functioning gas appliances produce little, if any, carbon monoxide. In the presence of sufficient oxygen, LPG burns to form water vapour and carbon dioxide, as well as heat. A propane heater produces carbon monoxide with incomplete combustion.

Natural gas or propane (LPG) appliances can produce carbon monoxide when they burn with incomplete combustion.

If not enough oxygen is present for complete combustion of LPG, incomplete propane combustion occurs with water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide being produced.

Incomplete combustion is caused by a lack of oxygen when burning, less than a 24:1 air to propane ratio, typically caused by a clogged burner.

A malfunctioning propane heater can produce dangerous levels of carbon monoxide, with incomplete combustion. Properly working indoor gas heaters hardly ever have a carbon monoxide problem. Using a propane heater in an enclosed space without enough ventilation could also cause hypoxia, as it consume oxygen to burn the gas. Properly functioning indoor gas heaters are rarely have a carbon monoxide problem.

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How BBQ Gas Bottles - Propane Tanks - Are Made

LPG tanks are made of a gas cylinder material (propane tank material) which is typically steel, aluminium, galvanised steel, stainless steel or composite materials.

The manufacturing of BBQ gas bottles – propane tanks – requires excellent quality control to assure long life and safe use.

Most users expect a minimum of 20 years of use, so premium materials and quality manufacturing are a must.

But how are they made?

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Can and Does Propane Freeze? Does LPG Gas Freeze - LPG-Propane Freezing Point

LPG-propane freezing point is -188 °C (-306.4°F). This would only ever occur under laboratory conditions. There is no place on the planet where temperatures this low occur in nature.

LPG-propane does not freeze in winter.

LPG-propane BOILS at -42°C (-43.6°F), which means that liquid propane does not vaporise - turn to gas - below that temperature. So, unless you live in Antarctica, you should have no problem.

So, yes, technically LPG-propane (LPG) can freeze but it never freezes outside of a laboratory situation.

Then how does frost and Ice appear on propane tanks (LPG cylinders), regulators and fittings? 

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Recall Notice - Rinnai Symmetry Inbuilt Fireplace

A Product Saety Recall notice has been issued for Rinnai “Symmetry” inbuilt gas log effect space heaters as pictured below, models RDV3610ETR and RDV3611ETR made from 2010 onwards.

Other Rinnai gas heaters are not affected.

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Gas Cylinder Weight - Gas Bottle Weight: How Much Does a Gas Cylinder Weigh - Full-Empty Gas Cylinder Weight - Fuel Tank Weight

Gas cylinder weight is the combination of the empty gas cylinder weight (tare weight) plus the net weight of the gas cylinder contents. The net gas cylinder weight is the reference weight. For example, as 45kg gas bottle has 45kg of net content weight. A 14.2 gas cylinder contains a net weight of 14.2kg.

The weight of the empty cylinder of 15.3kg is stamped into the neck ring or painted on the cylinder. Add the net weight of the gas contents, at 14.2 kg ±150gm, to the empty gas cylinder weight to arrive at the 29.5kg full gas cylinder weight. Empty gas cylinder weight varies from cylinder to cylinder and is stamped into the neck ring or painted on the cylinder.

How much does a gas cylinder weigh (total weight of gas cylinder) is determined if you know the domestic Domestic LPG gas cylinder weight (gas bottle weight) of filled gas cylinder (fuel tank weight) and weight of LPG cylinder without gas, so you can calculate the net domestic LPG gas cylinder weight of the contents.

Knowing the domestic gas cylinder weight of filled gas cylinder and empty – propane tanks – is important.

It is arguably the best way to determine how much does a domestic gas cylinder weigh (total weight of gas cylinder).

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