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Liquefied Petroleum Gas: LPG - What is LPG?

LPG - liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas – (LP gas), the constituents of which are propane and butane, are flammable hydrocarbon fuel gases used for LPG heating, cooking and vehicles.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas is typically referred to by its acronym – LPG. LPG is mixture of flammable hydrocarbon gases that include propane, butane, isobutane and mixtures of the three LPG gases. LPG is commonly used for home heating gases, cooking, hot water, and autogas – fuel for LPG cars and vehicles.

LPG gas comes from oil and gas wells, as it is a fossil fuel. LPG gas manufacturing process includes natural gas processing and the crude oil refinery process.

LPG, liquefied through pressurisation, comes from natural gas processing and oil refining.

In different countries, the LPG heating fuel gases supplied can be propane, butane or propane-butane blends. 

In Australia, LPG is just propane.  To explain LPG, Propane is LPG but not all LPG is propane.

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LPG Properties & LPG Composition -  What Are the Properties of LPG

Water boils at 100°C or 212°F, becoming a gas (steam). In contrast, LPG (propane) boils at -42°C or -44°F, becoming gas vapour. LPG stays liquid because it is under pressure in a gas cylinder. Liquid density is about half that of water.

In its natural state, LPG is a colourless and odourless gas. Odourant is added for safety.

LPG Composition - Components of LPG

LPG composition includes propane, butane & isobutane.

LPG composition is primarily propane, butane, isobutane, butylenes, propylene and mixtures of these gases, which are the components of LPG and all with different LPG properties. LPG is composed of liquid or gas (vapour), depending on pressure and LPG gas temperature.

The domestic LPG composition and the commercial LPG composition are typically the same propane, butane or a mixture of the two gases.

LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas – is produced during natural gas processing and petroleum refining.

Natural Gas Liquids – NGL – have the same LPG composition and gas temperatures plus a few more gases not normally included in LPG.

The full NGL list of components of LPG includes ethane, ethene, butylenes, propylene, propene, isobutene, butadiene, pentane, pentene and pentanes plus, as well as propane, butane and isobutane.

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LPG - Propane Heater Carbon Monoxide? Natural Gas Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?

Properly functioning propane heater should have optimal combustion during operation, presenting no danger of carbon monoxide poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning has adverse health effects and can be fatal.

Properly functioning gas appliances produce little, if any, carbon monoxide. In the presence of sufficient oxygen, LPG burns to form water vapour and carbon dioxide, as well as heat. A propane heater produces carbon monoxide with incomplete combustion.

Natural gas or propane (LPG) appliances can produce carbon monoxide when they burn with incomplete combustion.

If not enough oxygen is present for complete combustion of LPG, incomplete propane combustion occurs with water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide being produced.

Incomplete combustion is caused by a lack of oxygen when burning, less than a 24:1 air to propane ratio, typically caused by a clogged burner.

A malfunctioning propane heater can produce dangerous levels of carbon monoxide, with incomplete combustion. Properly working indoor gas heaters hardly ever have a carbon monoxide problem. Using a propane heater in an enclosed space without enough ventilation could also cause hypoxia, as it consume oxygen to burn the gas. Properly functioning indoor gas heaters are rarely have a carbon monoxide problem.

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How BBQ Gas Bottles - Propane Tanks - Are Made

LPG tanks are made of a gas cylinder material (propane tank material) which is typically steel, aluminium, galvanised steel, stainless steel or composite materials.

The manufacturing of BBQ gas bottles – propane tanks – requires excellent quality control to assure long life and safe use.

Most users expect a minimum of 20 years of use, so premium materials and quality manufacturing are a must.

But how are they made?

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Can and Does Propane Freeze? Does LPG Gas Freeze - LPG-Propane Freezing Point

LPG-propane freezing point is -188 °C (-306.4°F). This would only ever occur under laboratory conditions. There is no place on the planet where temperatures this low occur in nature.

LPG-propane does not freeze in winter.

LPG-propane BOILS at -42°C (-43.6°F), which means that liquid propane does not vaporise - turn to gas - below that temperature. So, unless you live in Antarctica, you should have no problem.

So, yes, technically LPG-propane (LPG) can freeze but it never freezes outside of a laboratory situation.

Then how does frost and Ice appear on propane tanks (LPG cylinders), regulators and fittings? 

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Recall Notice - Rinnai Symmetry Inbuilt Fireplace

A Product Saety Recall notice has been issued for Rinnai “Symmetry” inbuilt gas log effect space heaters as pictured below, models RDV3610ETR and RDV3611ETR made from 2010 onwards.

Other Rinnai gas heaters are not affected.

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Gas Cylinder Weight - Gas Bottle Weight: How Much Does a Gas Cylinder Weigh - Full-Empty Gas Cylinder Weight - Fuel Tank Weight

Gas cylinder weight is the combination of the empty gas cylinder weight (tare weight) plus the net weight of the gas cylinder contents. The net gas cylinder weight is the reference weight. For example, as 45kg gas bottle has 45kg of net content weight. A 14.2 gas cylinder contains a net weight of 14.2kg.

The weight of the empty cylinder of 15.3kg is stamped into the neck ring or painted on the cylinder. Add the net weight of the gas contents, at 14.2 kg ±150gm, to the empty gas cylinder weight to arrive at the 29.5kg full gas cylinder weight. Empty gas cylinder weight varies from cylinder to cylinder and is stamped into the neck ring or painted on the cylinder.

How much does a gas cylinder weigh (total weight of gas cylinder) is determined if you know the domestic Domestic LPG gas cylinder weight (gas bottle weight) of filled gas cylinder (fuel tank weight) and weight of LPG cylinder without gas, so you can calculate the net domestic LPG gas cylinder weight of the contents.

Knowing the domestic gas cylinder weight of filled gas cylinder and empty – propane tanks – is important.

It is arguably the best way to determine how much does a domestic gas cylinder weigh (total weight of gas cylinder).

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Natural Gas Alternative: Synthetic Natural Gas - SNG

LPG gas can be used as a direct alternative for natural gas, called SNG - synthetic natural gas. SNG is a carefully blended mix of LPG and compressed air. SNG can be used in place of natural gas, as it has virtually identical combustion characteristics.

It can be used alone or mixed with regular natural gas. No changes are required in burners, regulators or gas jets.

With the looming potential for natural gas shortages and price escalations, large natural gas users need to examine the alternatives.

There is a substitute called Sythetic Natural Gas, but what is it and how do you make it?

Learn more about this flexible solution…

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Calculate the LPG (Propane) Consumption per Hour by Burner Size - Propane Gas Consumption

A gallon of propane contains 91,502 BTU of heat energy whilst the BTU rating for appliances is in BTU per hour, based on burner size. Dividing 91,502 by the BTU per hour rating gives you the number of hours that one gallon of propane will last.

LPG (propane) gas consumption is based on the burner size or sizes of the appliance, as some have more than one burner. All gas appliances are rated by the manufacturers for propane gas consumption. To work out how many hours burn in an LPG gas bottle, divide the energy (MJ) by the total MJ input of your appliance (MJ /h).

They are expressed in either MJ/hr or BTU/hr, depending on which country you live in.

The propane gas consumption ratings are typically found in the product specifications.

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Mystery of the Secret Stench

For most of us, the scent of something rotting is simply repulsive.

But for others, such as carrion-feeding vultures, hyenas and house flies, it’s a scent that means meal time!

One evening, having arrived home from a long and tiring day at the office, I was greeted at my front door by a strong but unfamiliar odour. I couldn’t quite put my finger on it…

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