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Hot Water Mixing Valve - Hot Water Tempering Valve Adjustment - Hot Water System Installation Regulations - Tempering Valve Regulations

The hot water system installation regulations include tempering valve regulations that now require hot water tempering valves, to protect against scalding. Your plumber will make a hot water tempering valve adjustment to make sure your tap temperature does not exceed 50°C

A hot water mixing valve or hot water tempering valve is a safety device that mixes cold water with the hot water, to help prevent scalding. Hot water tempering valve adjustment is done to comply with tempering valve regulations.

Hot water tempering valve regulations require reducing the heat of the hot water to a maximum tap temperature (usually 50°C) for improved safety.

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Uses of LPG - Propane Uses: What is LPG Used For? LPG Applications - Uses of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

What is LPG used for?  LPG applications - cooking

Propane uses or uses of LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas – are cooking, heating, hot water and vehicle fuel. Propane-LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) uses also include LPG applications like petrochemical feedstock. aerosol propellant, air conditioning refrigerant and as fuel for power generators.

LPG (petroleum gas) is used for hundreds, if not thousands, of LPG applications in addition to as a fuel gas, including being employed in many commercial and agricultural heat applications.

LPG is a gaseous flammable hydrocarbon fuel and is also referred to as natural gas liquids – NGL.


And there are many more ways to use LPG…

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Gas Regulator: Gas Regulator Gas Pressure, LPG Gas Regulator & Gas Bottle Fittings

A gas regulator outlet provides a consistent and safe 2.75 kPa regulator gas pressure flow from your gas bottle to your gas appliance or equipment. Gas regulators, regulator gas pressure, gas bottle fittings, changeover valves and pigtails are all the components of an LPG gas system installation. 

Learn all about gas regulators, LPG gas bottles, POL fittings, LPG gas regulators, regulator gas pressure, gas bottle fittings, gas regulator gas flow, adaptors and more…

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What is LPG? Liquefied Petroleum Gas - Propane

LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas – describes flammable hydrocarbon gases including propane, butane and mixtures of these colourless, low carbon gaseous fuels.

LPG, liquefied through pressurisation, comes from natural gas processing and oil refining. Processed LPG is used as fuel for heating, cooking, hot water, and autogas fuel.

In different countries, the LPG heating fuel gases supplied can be propane, butane or propane-butane blends. 

In Australia, LPG is just propane.  Propane is LPG but not all LPG is propane.

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LPG Composition & the Chemical Properties of Propane

LPG Composition - Components of LPG - LPG Chemical Properties

LPG composition includes propane, butane & isobutane.

LPG composition is primarily propane, butane, isobutane, butylenes, propylene and mixtures of these gases, which are the components of LPG . LPG is composed of liquid or gas (vapour), depending on pressure and LPG gas temperature.

The domestic LPG composition and the commercial LPG composition are typically the same propane, butane or a mixture of the two gases.

LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gas – is produced during natural gas processing and petroleum refining.

Natural Gas Liquids – NGL – have the same LPG composition and gas temperatures plus a few more gases not normally included in LPG.

The full NGL list of components of LPG includes ethane, ethene, butylenes, propylene, propene, isobutene, butadiene, pentane, pentene and pentanes plus, as well as propane, butane and isobutane.

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LPG - Propane Heater Carbon Monoxide? Natural Gas Carbon Monoxide Poisoning?

Carbon monoxide – CO – is a toxic gas that can cause carbon monoxide poisoning. Propane does produce CO - carbon monoxide - generation when there is incomplete combustion.


LPG-propane heater carbon monoxide can be an issue if the heater is not maintained or if it is an outdoor heater. Natural gas can cause carbon monoxide poisoning, as well. However, properly functioning indoor gas heaters are rarely have a carbon monoxide problem.

Propane heaters and natural gas heaters can cause carbon monoxide without proper combustion.

Natural gas or propane (LPG) heaters and appliances can produce greater amounts of carbon monoxide when they burn with incomplete combustion. This occurs when they are malfunctioning or in need of service.

The good news is that properly functioning propane and natural gas heaters and appliances only produce small amounts of carbon monoxide.


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How BBQ Gas Bottles – Propane Tanks – Are Made

The manufacturing of BBQ gas bottles – propane tanks – requires excellent quality control to assure long life and safe use.

Most users expect a minimum of 20 years of use, so premium materials and quality manufacturing are a must.

But how are they made?

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Can and Does Propane Freeze? (Does LPG Gas Freeze) LPG-Propane Freezing Point

Yes, propane (LPG) can freeze… the LPG (propane) freezing point is -188 °C (-306.4°F). Does propane freeze? Why is there propane tank frost?

Given the extremely low freezing temperature, liquid propane never freezes outside of a laboratory situation.

Then how does frost and Ice appear on propane tanks (LPG cylinders), regulators and fittings?

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Recall Notice - Rinnai Symmetry Inbuilt Fireplace

A Product Saety Recall notice has been issued for Rinnai “Symmetry” inbuilt gas log effect space heaters as pictured below, models RDV3610ETR and RDV3611ETR made from 2010 onwards.

Other Rinnai gas heaters are not affected.

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Weight of LPG Gas Cylinder - Domestic LPG Gas Cylinder Weight Full & Empty - Propane Tanks

If you know the domestic LPG gas cylinder weight full & empty, you can calculate the net weight of the contents. Domestic LPG gas bottle-cylinder weight empty is called the tare weight (empty LPG domestic gas cylinder weight), which is synonymous with empty cylinder weight or unladen weight. Domestic LPG gas bottle-cylinder weight full is the combination of the tare weight and net weight of the contents (weight of filled gas cylinder).

Knowing the domestic LPG gas cylinder weight full & empty – propane tanks – is important.

It is arguably the best way to determine how much gas is left.

Full Gas Cylinder Weight = Empty (Tare) Cylinder Weight + Weight of the Contents.

Weight of LPG (Contents) = Full Cylinder Weight - Empty Cylinder Weight

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