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Legionnaires Disease Hot Water Heater: Legionella Bacteria in Hot Water Heater Tanks

Legionnaires Disease Hot Water Heater [Legionella Bacteria in Hot Water Tanks] Temperature

To prevent the Legionnaires Disease bacteria from growing in your hot water tank, do not lower hot water tank temperature below 60°C (140°F). Legionnaires Disease is a respiratory disease caused by the Legionella bacteria inhaled during a shower. Electric water heaters have an increased hazard.

You can catch Legionnaires Disease from a hot water heater. Hot water heater tanks, shower heads, hot water taps and pipework can breed Legionella bacteria.

Electric water heaters are more susceptible to Legionella growth because of the ≈25°C lower temperatures at the tank bottom.

The growth of the bacteria in hot water tanks is highest between 25°C to 50°C. This is why you should never turn your electric or gas water heater below 60°C (140°F). This is based on the building code and scientific research.

You can catch Legionnaires Disease from inhaling hot water heater droplets. It breeds in warm stationary water between 25°C to 50°C, so don’t turn down a hot water heater, including solar boosters.

Catching Legionnaires disease from a hot water heater is a very serious condition, being a potentially fatal illness. Legionnaires disease bacteria can breed in hot water heater tanks if they are set below 60°C.

The good news is that Legionnaires Disease from hot water heaters is totally preventable.

You need to be informed to protect your family’s health…

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Is LPG Good for Cars - Does LPG Damage Engines? LPG vs Petrol Engine Life

An LPG car engine heats up quicker, even with a fully cold engine. This is advantageous, as petrol engines take longer to warm up and a fast warm up is better. High octane (+100) LPG has far less pre-ignition (knocking) and is cleaner running. Your engine will be smoother running with cleaner spark plugs, valves, pistons and cylinder heads.

If you are thinking about LPG vs petrol engine life and converting your car or SUV to run on LPG, you would typically have a lot of questions. You want to know is LPG good for cars or does LPG damage engines before deciding.

Let’s look at the facts about LPG vs petrol engine life so that you can make an informed decision…

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Can You Use a 9kg Gas Bottle Instead of a 45kg?

Often asked: “Can I use a small gas cylinder or bottle instead of a bigger one?”

Another common question is on the use of a 9kg gas bottle instead of a 45kg.

Yet other queries relates to using a 2kg, or other small gas bottle, instead of a 9kg on a standard size BBQ.

Let’s look at the potential issues of downsizing the gas bottle…

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LPG Gas Pipe Safety Alert – Open-Ended Gas Pipes

It is both dangerous and illegal to leave a gas pipe open and un-capped or incorrectly capped.

This applies to all gas installations, including houses, caravans, boats, commercial buildings, warehouses and factories.

All gas pipes must be either connected to an appliance or securely capped.

This prevents any accidental or malicious gas leaks.

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What Type of Gas is Supplied and Used in Homes - What Gas is Used in Gas Bottles - Cooking Gas Contains - Cooking Gas Cylinder

The most common gas supplied and used in homes is natural gas (methane) via gas mains, although the energy content can vary from country to country. LPG, in gas bottles, is the common alternative where there are no gas mains.

CNG and even Biogas are also used in some places. The deciding factor is the local supply situation.

Type of Gas in a Cooking Gas Cylinder

LPG is the gas in a cooking gas cylinder. It is primarily used as cooking fuel.

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Never Use a Gas Stove or Oven as a Heater

Gas stoves and ovens are for cooking only.

They are not designed or intended for use as space heaters.

Improper use can be dangerous or even fatal…

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LPG (propane) Gas Unit Conversions: Gas in kg, Litres, MJ, kWh & m³

Also Propane Gas Unit Conversion in Pounds, Gallons, BTU, Therms & ft³

Where LPG is propane, 1kg of LPG has a volume of 1.96 litres. Conversely, 1 litre of LPG weighs 0.51kg.

LPG Specific Gravity - Density: Unlike water, 1kg of LPG does NOT equal 1 litre of LPG. This is because the density or specific gravity of LPG is less than water.

Gas unit conversion is the comparison of one gas unit measurement with another. Having a given quantity of one gas unit, you convert it to an equivalent amount in another gas unit, with a gas unit conversion formula, table or chart.

We are frequently asked about the various LPG - propane - gas unit conversion (LP gas unit conversion) values. 

The first table shown below covers most of the common gas unit conversion measures and gas bottle-cylinder sizes for Australia, including kg, litres, MJ, kWh & m³ (e.g. LPG gas unit conversion of kg to litres is 1kg = 1.96L).

People ask the questions in many ways and the simplest way to answer most of them is with an LPG Gas Unit Conversion Table (or two). 

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Incomplete & Complete Combustion of Propane - Propane Equation & Formula

Complete combustion of propane (LPG) is important. Complete LPG combustion saves you money on gas.

The propane equation for complete combustion of propane involves propane and oxygen as fuel input, and carbon dioxide, water, heat and possible carbon monoxide as the outputs. Complete combustion of LPG - propane - yields about 25 MJ/litre or 49 MJ/kg of heat.

Incomplete combustion produces carbon monoxide, which is a poisonous gas.

Find out what you need to do…

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LPG Engines for LPG Vehicles - How Does an LPG Engine Work? How Does LPG Work

When LPG – liquefied petroleum gas – is used in LPG vehicles with internal combustion engines or for stationary engines, like generators, it is called Autogas. Autogas is a varying mixture of propane and butane.

How LPG works in an engine is fundamentally the same as a petrol powered internal combustion engine. The engine block, pistons, spark plugs, ignition system, lubrication system and electricals all work the same on LPG fuel, consisting of propane, butane or a blend of the two and are also referred to as natural gas liquids – NGL.

The two main differences in how LPG works in an LPG vehicles are the fuel itself and the fuel storage and intake systems.

With an octane rating of over 100, LPG works with virtually any petrol engine.

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ACCC Recall - Campmaster CM1950S Butane Heater

12 October 2017

The ACCC has announced the recall of Campmaster CM1950S Butane Heater effective immediately.

You can download the official recall notice.

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